Barbershop harmony is unaccompanied, four-part a cappella harmony. Although barbershop-style music is usually built on simple melodies and is relatively easy to sing, the a cappella style and the ear training necessary for independent part singing make it one of the most challenging and rewarding accomplishments of a vocal ensemble. When the music is sung accurately and with good breath support and vocal techniques, barbershop harmony produces overtone vibrations that create a resonant ring unique to this form of music. Men of all skill levels join us and their abilities are as varied as they are. It’s the coming together of these unique voices, talents and experiences that creates the space for an exciting ensemble.
Here are the basics:
VOICE PARTS IN BARBERSHOP SINGING
There are certain things you may want to know depending on the part you will be singing. In traditional men's TTBB choral music, the melody is usually in the First Tenor line, above all others. The voice parts in barbershop harmony have different names and functions. The LEAD voice, generally sings the melody and is below the TENOR harmony; the TENOR part sings the highest note in the chord; the BARITONE part fills in the all-important missing note in a chord that may be above and below the melody; and the BASS part supplies the harmonic foundation (root or fifth) of the chord. Similar to choral music, minimal vibrato should be apparent in barbershop singing. Wide and obvious vibratos tend to hamper the “lock and ring” that we look for in our chords.
TENOR is a harmony part sung consistently above the lead. The tenor should have a light, sweet, pure tone that will complement but not overpower or overshadow the lead voice. Occasionally you will have notes below the lead. When this happens, your tonal quality will need to change from being light and clear to being more full and round. Flexibility is the key and knowing when you need to change.
LEAD is the melody and must be sung with authority, clarity, and consistent quality throughout his range. The lead sings with limited vibrato to add color and warmth to the sound. With too much use of vibrato the chord will not “lock” or “ring” or produce the unique full or “expanded” sound that is characteristic of barbershop harmony. The lead is responsible for conveying the interpretation, emotion, and inflections of the song. The range is equivalent to a Tenor II. On the rarer occasions when the melody line is in another part, which may be only for a few notes, you will need to be aware to lighten your vocal quality to allow the melody to shine wherever it is being sung. If you are in a quartet, the others will follow your lead. In a chorus, we all follow the director.
BARITONE covers approximately the same range as lead. The voice part is similar to the lead except that baritone harmony notes are primarily sung below the lead but sometimes sung above, depending on where the melody is situated. Baritones must constantly adjust their balance to accommodate their position in the chord. They must to have a good ear.
BASS is the lowest note in the barbershop chord. Singers should have a rich, mellow voice and generally sing the root and fifth of each chord. The bass sings a relatively straight, well-produced tone with a minimum of vibrato. A bass sings with a heavier tone quality than the others and generally with more volume, to fill out the “cone.” The bass part provides the foundation of each chord.